Friday, May 6, 2011

Water Managment -Meaning

In the present scenario management and distribution of water has become centralized.The management and distrbution essentially includes water filtration,rain water filtration,purification of water ,rain water storage systems and also providing drinking water . People depend on government system, which has resulted in disruption of community participation in water management and collapse of traditional water harvesting system.
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulating and storing, of rainwater for reuse, before it reaches the aquifer in rainwater storage systems. It has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, water for irrigation, as well as other typical uses given to water. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses, tents and local institutions, can make an important contribution to the availability of drinking water. Water collected from the ground, sometimes from areas which are especially prepared for this purpose, is called Stormwater harvesting. In some cases, rainwater may be the only available, or economical, water source. Rainwater harvesting systems can be simple to construct from inexpensive local materials, and are potentially successful in most habitable locations. Roof rainwater can't be of good quality and may require treatment before consumption. As rainwater rushes from your roof to water storage systems it may carry pollutants in it such as the tiniest bit of mercury from coal burning buildings to bird or dog feces or away from septic tanks. Although some rooftop materials may produce rainwater that is harmful to human health, it can be useful in flushing toilets, washing clothes, watering the garden and washing cars; these uses alone halve the amount of water used by a typical home. Overflow from rainwater harvesting tank systems can be used to refill aquifers in a process called groundwater recharge, though this is a related process, it must not be confused with Rainwater harvesting.

As the water crisis continues to become severe, there is a dire need of reform in water management system and revival of traditional systems. Scientific and technological studies needs to be carried out to assess present status so as to suggest suitable mitigative measures for the revival to traditional system/wisdom of water filtration and purification of water. Revival process should necessarily be backed by people's initiative and active public participation.

Living creatures of the universe are made of five basic elements, viz., Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Sky, Obviously, water is one of the most important elements and no creature can survive without it. Despite having a great regard for water, we seem to have failed to address this sector seriously. Human being could not save and conserve water and it sources, probably because of its availability in abundance. But this irresponsible attitude resulted in deterioration of water bodies with respect to quantity and quality both. Now, situation has arrived when even a single drop of water matters. However. " better late than never", we have not realized the seriousness of this issue and initiated efforts to overcome those problems.
System of collection rainwater and conserving for future needs has traditionally been practiced in India. The traditional systems were time-tested wisdom of not only appropriate technology of Rainwater harvesting solutions, but also water management systems, where conservation of water was the prime concern. Traditional water harvesting systems were Bawaries, step wells, jhiries, lakes, tanks etc. These were the water storage systems to domestic and irrigation demands. People were themselves responsible for maintenance to water sources and optimal use of water that could fulfill their needs.

What is Rainwater harvesting?
The term rainwater harvesting is being frequently used these days, however, the concept of water harvesting is not new for India. Water harvesting techniques had been evolved and developed centuries ago.

Ground water resource gets naturally recharged through percolation. But due to indiscriminate development and rapid urbainzation, exposed surface for soil has been reduced drastically with resultant reduction in percolation of rainwater, thereby depleting ground water resource. Rainwater harvesting is the process of augmenting the natural filtration of rainwater in to the underground formation by some artificial methods. "Conscious collection and storage of rainwater to cater to demands of water, for drinking, domestic purpose & irrigation is termed as Rainwater Harvesting."

Why harvest rainwater ?
This is perhaps one of the most frequently asked question, as to why one should harvest rainwater. There are many reasons but following are some of the important ones.

To arrest ground water decline and augment ground water table
To beneficiate water quality in aquifers
To conserve surface water runoff during monsoon
To reduce soil erosion
To inculcate a culture of water conservation

How to harvest rainwater:
Broadly there are two ways of harvesting rainwater:

(i) Surface runoff harvesting
(ii) Roof top rainwater harvesting

Surface runoff harvesting:

In urban area rainwater flows away as surface runoff. This runoff could be caught and used in water storage systems for recharging aquifers by adopting appropriate methods.

Roof top rainwater harvesting (RTRWH):

It is a system of catching rainwater where it falls. In rooftop harvesting, the roof becomes the catchments, and the rainwater is collected from the roof of the house/building. It can either be stored in a tank or diverted to artificial recharge system. This method is less expensive and very effective and if implemented properly helps in augmenting the ground water level of the area.

Components of the roof top rainwater harvesting system

The illustrative design of the basic components of roof top rainwater harvesting system is given in the following typical schematic diagram/

The system mainly constitutes of following sub components:
First flush
The surface that receives rainfall directly is the catchment of rainwater harvesting system. It may be terrace, courtyard, or paved or unpaved open ground. The terrace may be flat RCC/stone roof or sloping roof. Therefore the catchment is the area, which actually contributes rainwater to the harvesting system.

Rainwater from rooftop should be carried through down take water pipes or drains to storage/harvesting system. Water pipes should be UV resistant (ISI HDPE/PVC pipes) of required capacity. Water from sloping roofs could be caught through gutters and down take pipe. At terraces, mouth of the each drain should have wire mesh to restrict floating material.

First Flush

First flush is a device used to flush off the water received in first shower. The first shower of rains needs to be flushed-off to avoid contaminating storable/rechargeable water by the probable contaminants of the atmosphere and the catchment roof. It will also help in cleaning of silt and other material deposited on roof during dry seasons Provisions of first rain separator should be made at outlet of each drainpipe.


There is always some skepticism regarding Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting since doubts are raised that rainwater may contaminate groundwater. There is remote possibility of this fear coming true if proper filter mechanism is not adopted. Secondly all care must be taken to see that underground sewer drains are not punctured and no leakage is taking place in close vicinity. Filters are used fro treatment of water to effectively remove turbidity, colour and microorganisms. After first flushing of rainfall, water should pass through filters. There are different types of filters in practice, but basic function is to purify water.

Sand Gravel Filter

These are commonly used filters, constructed by brick masonry and filleted by pebbles, gravel, and sand as shown in the figure. Each layer should be separated by wire mesh.

Charcoal Filter

Charcoal Filter can be made in-situ or in a drum. Pebbles, gravel, sand and charcoal as shown in the figure should fill the drum or chamber. Each layer should be separated by wire mesh. Thin layer of charcoal is used to absorb odor if any.

PVC- Pipe filter

This filter can be made by PVC pipe of 1 to 1.20 m length; Diameter of pipe depends on the area of roof. Six inches dia. pipe is enough for a 1500 Sq. Ft. roof and 8 inches dia. pipe should be used for roofs more then 1500 Sq. Ft. Pipe is divided into three compartments by wire mesh. Each component should be filled with gravel and sand alternatively as shown in the figure. A layer of charcoal could also be inserted between two layers. Both ends of filter should have reduce of required size to connect inlet and outlet. This filter could be placed horizontally or vertically in the system.

Sponge Filter

It is a simple filter made from PVC drum having a layer of sponge in the middle of drum. It is the easiest and cheapest form filter, suitable for residential units.

Methods of Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting

Storage of Direct use

In this method rain water collected from the roof of the building is diverted to a storage tank. The storage tank has to be designed according to the water requirements, rainfall and catchment availability. Each drainpipe should have mesh filter at mouth and first flush device followed by filtration system before connecting to the storage tank. It is advisable that each tank should have excess water over flow system.

Excess water could be diverted to recharge system. Water from storage tank can be used for secondary purposes such as washing and gardening etc. This is the most cost effective way of rainwater harvesting. The main advantage of collecting and using the rainwater during rainy season is not only to save water from conventional sources, but also to save energy incurred on transportation and distribution of water at the doorstep. This also conserve groundwater, if it is being extracted to meet the demand when rains are on.

Recharging ground water aquifers

Ground water aquifers can be recharged by various kinds of structures to ensure percolation of rainwater in the ground instead of draining away from the surface. Commonly used recharging methods are:-

a) Recharging of bore wells
b) Recharging of dug wells.
c) Recharge pits
d) Recharge Trenches
e) Soak ways or Recharge Shafts
f) Percolation Tanks

Recharging of bore wells

Rainwater collected from rooftop of the building is diverted through drainpipes to settlement or filtration tank. After settlement filtered water is diverted to bore wells to recharge deep aquifers. Abandoned bore wells can also be used for recharge.

Optimum capacity of settlement tank/filtration tank can be designed on the basis of area of catchement, intensity of rainfall and recharge rate as discussed in design parameters. While recharging, entry of floating matter and silt should be restricted because it may clog the recharge structure. "first one or two shower should be flushed out through rain separator to avoid contamination. This is very important, and all care should be taken to ensure that this has been done."

Recharge Pits

Recharge pits are small pits of any shape rectangular, square or circular, contracted with brick or stone masonry wall with weep hole at regular intervals. to of pit can be covered with perforated covers. Bottom of pit should be filled with filter media.

The capacity of the pit can be designed on the basis of catchment area, rainfall intensity and recharge rate of soil. Usually the dimensions of the pit may be of 1 to 2 m width and 2 to 3 m deep depending on the depth of pervious strata. These pits are suitable for recharging of shallow aquifers, and small houses.

Soak away or Recharge Shafts

Soak away or recharge shafts are provided where upper layer of soil is alluvial or less pervious. These are bored hole of 30 cm dia. up to 10 to 15 m deep, depending on depth of pervious layer. Bore should be lined with slotted/perforated PVC/MS pipe to prevent collapse of the vertical sides. At the top of soak away required size sump is constructed to retain runoff before the filters through soak away. Sump should be filled with filter media.

Recharging of dug wells

Dug well can be used as recharge structure. Rainwater from the rooftop is diverted to dug wells after passing it through filtration bed. Cleaning and desalting of dug well should be done regularly to enhance the recharge rate. The filtration method suggested for bore well recharging could be used.

Recharge Trenches

Recharge trench in provided where upper impervious layer of soil is shallow. It is a trench excavated on the ground and refilled with porous media like pebbles, boulder or brickbats. it is usually made for harvesting the surface runoff. Bore wells can also be provided inside the trench as recharge shafts to enhance percolation. The length of the trench is decided as per the amount of runoff expected. This method is suitable for small houses, playgrounds, parks and roadside drains. The recharge trench can be of size 0.50 to 1.0 m wide and 1.0 to 1.5 m deep.

Percolation tanks

Percolation tanks are artificially created surface water bodies, submerging a land area with adequate permeability to facilitate sufficient percolation to recharge the ground water. These can be built in big campuses where land is available and topography is suitable.

Surface run-off and roof top water can be diverted to this tank. Water accumulating in the tank percolates in the solid to augment the ground water. The stored water can be used directly for gardening and raw use. Percolation tanks should be built in gardens, open spaces and roadside green belts of urban area.

Do's and Don’ts

Harvested rainwater is used for direct usage or for recharging aquifers. It is most important to ensure that the rainwater caught is free from pollutants. Following precautionary measures should be taken while harvesting rainwater:-

Roof or terraces uses for harvesting should be clean, free from dust, algal plants etc and away from septic tanks.
Roof should not be painted since most paints contain toxic substances and may peel off.
Do not store chemicals, rusting iron, manure or detergent on the roof.
Nesting of birds on the roof should be prevented.
Terraces should not be used for toilets either by human beings or by pets.
Provide gratings at mouth of each drainpipe on terraces to trap leaves debris and floating materials.
Provision of first rain separator should be made to flush off first rains.
Do not use polluted water to recharge ground water.
Ground water should only be recharged by rainwater and should be away from septic tanks.
Before recharging, suitable arrangements of water filtering should be provided.
Filter media should be cleaned before every monsoon season.
During rainy season, the whole water storage systems (roof catchment, pipes, screens, first flush, filters, tanks) should be checked before and after each rain and preferably cleaned after every dry period exceeding a month.
At the end of the dry season and just before the first shower of rain is anticipated, the storage tank should be scrubbed and flushed off all sediments and debris.

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